1. THE THYMUS GLAND: ANATOMY - PHYSIOLOGY

The thymus (gland), popularly also called sweetbread, is the central organ of immunity, located in the upper mediastinum. It grows only until puberty, after which it regresses or is replaced by fatty tissue. The thymus gland normally functions sufficiently throughout an average life-span, but its functions decrease with advancing age. As a result, the incidence of autoimmune diseases and malignant cell developments rises. But considerable amounts of nucleoproteins (thymonucleic acids) remain that take over some of the functions of the thymus. Furthermore, the thymus gland interacts with the gonads and influences body growth.

The building up and development of the whole lymphatic system are decisively influenced by the thymus. The thymus (together with the bone marrow) is rightly called a primary organ of immunity.

In 1961, Miller and co-workers discovered the major importance of the thymus gland in immunological maturation. They proved that newborn mice were unable to develop immunity following surgical excision of the thymus. This means that hormonal and cellular thymus factors mediate the maturation of immunologically potent immune cells to immunologically competent cells.

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2. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THYMUS LYMPHOCYTES

The entire development of the T lymphocytes from the stem cells of the bone marrow occurs via the thymus gland. Approximately 3% of “pre-thymus lymphocytes” that migrated to the thymus subsequently re-enter the blood stream again. The rest remain in the thymus gland and are primed to recognise the individuality of the body’s cells.

The cellular thymic factor in the thymus brings about the maturation of the lymphatic stem cells. These, after their maturation process has been concluded, settle in the lymphatic system (lymph nodes, intestinal wall, spleen and bone marrow) as "immune cells". The lymphocytes released into the blood stream thus recognise the cell surface of an individual as its own (individual characteristics of the body’s own cells). HLA factors (human lymphocyte antigen markers) are integrated in the cell surface in our body and are characteristic for each individual (HLA identity). The thymus lymphocytes (T lymphocytes) recognise the body’s own cells because this information was fixed on them during their passage through the thymus. Subgroups of T lymphocytes are continuously formed through contact with thymocytes (thymus hormones), such as T-helper cells. If necessary (“defensive action”), these produce specific immunoglobulins against agents that are foreign or are perceived as such.

The lymphocytes of the B cell series are incapable of transforming themselves into immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells if no T-helper cells or thymus factors are available. T-suppressor cells have an inhibitory effect on lymphocytes so that not too many antibodies are formed. Autoimmune diseases, immune-complex diseases etc. would be difficult to explain without these suppressor cells.

The thymus gland, with its specific hormones, is like a regulatory centre for immunological defence reactions. Without the thymus (e.g. removed experimentally or destroyed by radiation) T lymphocytes can therefore no longer be demonstrated. If thymus tissue is substituted in such a case, the specific functions of the lymphocytes are restored.

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3. THYMUS AND AGE

Under normal circumstances involution of the thymus occurs after the end of puberty. By the 5th decade of life one’s thymus has shrunk to a tiny residue. Thus decreased thymic activity and ageing seem to be directly related. The decreasing thymic activity is thus a possible explanation for the significant rise in degenerative diseases, malignant degeneration, and autoimmune changes with age. Reduced thymus factors are no longer able to regulate the defence mechanism completely.

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4. DISEASES CAUSED BY THYMUS DEFICIENCY

Thymus deficiency, as may develop in young people, leads to more frequent viral infections and fungal and bacterial diseases. Chemo- and radiotherapy and the administration of antibiotics also weaken the thymus function.

Diseases of auto-aggression, based on the overproduction of auto-antibodies against endogenous cell surfaces, are also the result of immune deficiency.

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5. REPLACEMENT OF THYMUS FACTORS

In his studies Sandberg, a Swedish physician, showed that the replacement of thymus factors (he used thymus peptides from young calves) could almost completely regenerate and activate the regulation and control of the immunological defence system.

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6. THYMUS FACTORS

Thymus factors are produced from organs of pigs, calves or sheeps. The organs are specially cleaned and tested for zoonoses. In accordance with legal requirements the thymus factors are also tested for sterility and the absence of pyrogens. Only organs or cell factors that test free of abnormalities may be processed or administered.

In addition to immunologically effective cell factors, thymus factors also contain adenosine desaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and exhibit peptidase activity. Pharmacological tests have shown that injections of thymus factors (e.g. thymus hormones or thymus cells) have distinct stimulating and modulating effects on the immune system.

7. INDICATIONS
  1. Allergic/atopic diseases
    e.g. bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis.

  2. Prevention of diseases of ageing
    e.g. postponement of the “chain” of degenerative diseases.

  3. Autoimmune diseases
    e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, disseminated lupus erythematodes; stimulation and restoration of an exhausted immune system.

  4. Immune deficiency
    e.g. improved thymus-dependent regulatory and controlling functions.

  5. Degenerative diseases of the locomotor apparatus
    e.g. arthritis and osteochondrosis.

  6. Dermatological diseases
    e.g. oral aphthous symptoms, staphylococcal skin infections, Candid infections.

  7. Infectious diseases
    e.g. herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hepatitis B and C, HIV, influenza. etc.

  8. Psychoneuroimmunological diseases
    e.g. stress-induced immunodeficiency, neuroimmunological and emotional disorders.

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8. THYMUS FACTORS IN CANCER THERAPY
  1. Prevention of abnormal cellular tissue formation, e.g. precancerous lesions

  2. Biological adjunct treatment in pre- and postoperative management

  3. Improvement of general condition in chemo- and radiotherapy; sometimes arrest of metastatic spread

Osbond (Boston, USA) has succeeded in proving that injection of thymus factors can bring about remission of “malignant histiocytes”. According to investigations by Serrou, the administration of thymus factors is also justified in the treatment of cancer. During the development of malignant tumours cysts form in the thymus gland, resulting in complete regression of the thymus gland. Thus, in cancer patients there is involution of the thymus gland dependent on the disease process.

The administration of thymus factors in cancer therapy is therefore not only for the purpose of stimulating the immune system, but also an essential measure to counterbalance the deficiency of thymus hormones.

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9. FURTHER CELL FACTORS AND THEIR AREAS OF USAGE
10. CASE STUDIES AND THERAPY RECOMMENDATIONS

Case 1 : Thymus and umbilical cord cell factors in autoimmune hepatitis

Here we would like to present to you a case report by Dr. Mauthe of Freiburg. Dr. Mauthe has been working on cell factors for decades. In this case he used a thymus and umbilical cord factors against autoimmune hepatitis. It is particularly remarkable that it was possible for this patient to discontinue cortisone and Imurek (azathioprine) within only 4 weeks, and that the transaminase levels returned completely to normal. But read for yourself what Dr. Mauthe has written:

"I find the following case so remarkable that I would like to bring it to your attention: Patient K. M., aged 51 years, hospital secretary. No previous serious disease, except Q fever pneumonia in 1993.

She became ill on 26.10.1999, with painless jaundice and a fever of up to 39.5° C.

  1. Virology demonstrated immunity against hepatitis A and B, seronegativity for HCV.

  2. Ultrasound demonstrated a very dense inhomogeneous internal structure (of the liver) and intrahepatic cholestasis; the maximum diameter of the common bile duct was 5 mm. Gall bladder without stones. Normal spleen and kidneys.

  3. Liver biopsy (blind needle puncture): signs of chronic hepatitis of unknown aetiology with grade II inflammatory activity and stage II fibrosis, as well as associated cholestatic and microgranulomatous components.

  4. Serology: positive SMA (smooth muscle antibody) and anti-Calreticulin antibodies.

  5. Laboratory tests: GOT 811 U/L, GPT 954 U/L, LDH U/L, total bilirubin 31.3 (mg/dL), g -GT 211 (U/L).

This provided the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Because of this, inpatient treatment initiated with high-dose azathioprine (200 mg) and prednisolone, aiming for maintenance dosage of 5-10 mg. There was clinical improvement, but transaminases remained around 100 U/L. The patient gained weight and showed typical side-effects of cortisone, including demineralization of the skeleton of the trunk. I began cell therapy with 3 thymus and 3 umbilical cord cell factors weekly for a total of 4 weeks. Although I had wanted this treatment to be in addition to the immunosuppressive drugs, the patient discontinued cortisone and Imurek on her own accord. After these 4 weeks laboratory tests showed transaminases having surprisingly returned completely to normal! Since then Mrs. K. has been given maintenance treatment of 1 thymus and 1 umbilical cord cell factor weekly, under which the activity parameters did not increase to any extent worth mentioning at any time. Ultrasound of the liver and biliary tract is now quite unremarkable, and the patient feels well. Further monitoring of antibody titres showed no change. The cause of the disease thus persists, but without symptoms of the destructive inflammatory process in the liver.

Since, according to the medical literature, spontaneous remission of autoimmune hepatitis is improbable, this good result can be ascribed to the administration of thymus and umbilical cord cell factors."

Case 2 : Treatment recommendations for brain metastases

Here we would like to present to you a case report by Dr. Männel of Burgwedel. Dr. Männel has been working with cell factors for decades. He is always prepared and willing to offer advice to our members and answer medical questions about thymus and cell therapy.

A question for our expert and advising physician Dr. Männel:

What can be done for progressive, growing brain metastases from a melanoma two years earlier after all other treatment options have been exhausted? The problem is compounded by the fact that the patient lives abroad and only has 10 days for the first treatment cycle.

Both the progression of the metastases and the specified time limit are almost intractable problems per se, and the worst possible situation that a therapist can imagine! Nevertheless, it is vital to attempt a compact course of intensive therapy. Particularly in cases of such hopelessness, complementary therapy with cell factors (xenogenic peptides) can literally “restore” patients who are absolutely suffering for a period of time and certainly significantly improve their general wellbeing. I am not talking here about specific therapy against metastases, that would be most presumptuous in this particular case. The objective would be purely subjective relief of suffering!

In view of the extremely short therapy period of initially only 10 days, I recommended several injections daily of alternating cell factors. It is most important that the injections be distributed equally in the right and left buttocks. Generally, multiple injections of up to 4 cell factors (also those of different origins) are drawn up into one syringe and administered by intramuscular injection. In this particular case I recommended an average of 3 injections in the right buttock and 3 in the left, i.e. a total of six cell factors daily. And here is a practical tip: after the two injections, 15 ml each on the right and left, the patient should stay at the practice to rest for half an hour, and have ice packs or cold towels laid on the injection sites.

My cell factor recommendation in this particular case:

Day

Cell factor

Day

Cell factor

1

4 thymus, 1 placenta, 1 kidney

6

3 thymus, 1 spleen, 1 umbilical cord

2

3 thymus, 1 placenta,
1 umbilical cord, 1 liver

7

2 thymus, 1 spleen, 1 liver, 1 heart,
1 umbilical cord

3

3 thymus, 1 heart, 1 spleen, 1 liver

8

3 thymus, 1 spleen, 1 liver, 1 heart

4

3 thymus, 1 heart, 1 spleen,
1 umbilical cord

9

2 thymus, 2 spleen, 2 umbilical cords

5

3 thymus, 1 heart, 1 spleen,
1 umbilical cord

10

2 thymus, 2 spleen, 2 umbilical cords

 

For the second treatment cycle after spending about 10 days at home I recommended a uniform daily regimen: 2x thymus, 1x spleen, 1x umbilical cord and 2x brain. From the feedback at the end of the first treatment cycle I heard that the patient already felt better at times, but that he was occasionally dissatisfied and somewhat depressed – I hadn’t expected anything else. I hope to achieve the necessary balance by adding brain cell factors.

In many cases, adequate time management is essential besides individual and indispensable complementary therapy. Nothing is impossible!

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